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Top IELTS Vocabulary


Top IELTS Vocabulary


  •   ਅਰ੍ਨਿਂਗ = ਕਮਾਊ, ਕਮਾਈ
  •   अर्निंग = कमाई

As of March 2000, Julia Roberts was earning $20 million per movie, making her the highest-paid actress in Hollywood history.

His earnings as a realtor won him a prize as the top salesman of the month.

The mining industry contributes over 90% to Zambia's export earnings.


  •   ਏਕਾਲਜਿਸ੍ਟ = ਪਰਿਸਥਿਤੀ ਵਿਗਯਾਨਿਕ
  •   एकॉलजिस्ट = परिस्थिति विज्ञानी, परिस्थिति वैज्ञानिक

She is now a behavioral ecologist, an expert in how animals use sound.

The first range ecologist, he was the father of range management.

Economic Depression

  •   ਏਕਨਾਮਿਕ ਡਿਪ੍ਰੇਸ਼ਨ = ਆਰਥਿਕ ਮੰਦੀ
  •   एकनामिक डिप्रेशन = आर्थिक मंदी

Many people worry that the world could experience another economic depression.


  •   ਏਕਾਨਮੀ = ਬੱਚਤ, ਆਰਥਿਕਤਾ, ਅਰਤ੍ਵਯਵਸਥਾ
  •   इकानमी = अर्थव्यवस्था, अर्थनीति, अर्थ प्रबन्धन

Unfortunately, cutting taxes to stimulate the economy mainly helps those in the middle and upper classes.

Generations ago, marriage was primarily an economic arrangement in most cultures.

The economies of the U.S. and Mexico are closely linked.


  •   ਈਕੋਸਿਸ੍ਟਮ = ਪਾਰਿਤਨਤਰ
  •   ईकोसिस्टम = परितंत्र, पारिस्थितिक तंत्र

Any changes made in our ecosystem affect all the plants and animals that live there.

Destroying one part of the ecosystem affects every other part of it.

The ecosystem is this area is extremely fragile because it is so small and so specialized.


  •   ਏਲਿਮੇਂਟ = ਧਾਤੂ, ਤਤਵ, ਮੂਲ ਵਸਤੂ
  •   एलिमेंट = मूल वस्तु, तत्व, किसी वस्तु का प्रमुख भाग

One of the key elements in our plan is a new advertising campaign.

There are 109 different elements in the Periodic Table in chemistry.

Simple hard work has been the primary element in the story of his success.


  •   ਏਲਿਵੇਟ = ਉਭਾਰ, ਉਭਾਰਨਾ
  •   एलिवेट = पदोन्नति करना, बुलन्द करना, ऊपर, ऊंचा करना

Moderate dancing will elevate heart rates, and can burn up to 300 calories an hour.

Movie stars in the U.S. have been elevated to the status of royalty.

He had an elevated heart rate during the days of his final exams.


  •   ਏਂਬੈਰਸ = ਉਲਝਣ, ਪਰੇਸ਼ਾਨ ਕਰਨਾ, ਸ਼ਰਮਿੰਦਾ ਕਰਨਾ
  •   इम्बेरस = उलझाना, असमंजस में डालना, अड़चन डालना, शर्मिंदा करना

The young boy embarrassed his friend by laughing at his new haircut.

The Australian team was embarrassed 7-0 by the Argentineans in the opening match.


  •   ਏਂਬਾਡੀਮੇਂਟ = ਅਵਤਾਰ, ਮੂਰਤ ਰੂਪ
  •   एम्बाडीमन्ट = अभिव्यक्ति, अवतार, मूर्त रूप

It is the embodiment and home of divine personality and power.

With Zeus and Apollo, she forms a triad which represents the embodiment of all divine power.


  •   ਏਮਰ੍ਜ = ਨਿਕਲਣਾ, ਉਗਮ
  •   एमर्ज = उभर कर आना, प्रकट होना

A butterfly will emerge from its cocoon after a certain amount of time.

Rome emerged as the major power in Italy after 500 B.C.


  •   ਏਂਫਸਾਇਜ਼ = ਜ਼ੋਰ ਦੇਣਾ, ਪਰਮੁਖ ਬਣਾਨਾ, ਮਹਿਤਵ ਦੇਣਾ
  •   एम्फसाइज़ = ज़ोर देना, महत्त्व देना

This ESL program puts a lot of emphasize on speaking and listening skills.

In French, the emphasis is always on the last syllable of a word.

Healthy eating emphasizes fruits and vegetables.


  •   ਏਮ੍ਯੁਲੇਟ = ਬ੍ਰਾਬਰੀ ਕਰਨਾ, ਪ੍ਰਤੀਯੋਗਿਤਾ ਕਰਨਾ
  •   एम्युलेट = बराबरी करना, अनुसरण करना, प्रतियोगिता करना

He tried to emulate the recent success of mine.

We tried to emulate what we had seen in the morning.


  •   ਏਨੇਬਲ = ਸ੍ਮਰਤ ਬਣਾਨਾ, ਅਧਿਕਾਰ ਦੇਣਾ
  •   एनेबल = योग्य बनाना, सक्षम बनाना, समर्थ बनाना

Using a computer has enabled me to do my work much more quickly and efficiently.

Can you show me how to enable the internal modem on my computer?

Reading novels can enable us to temporarily forget our problems.


  •   ਏਨਕਾਉਂਟਰ = ਸਾਹਮਣਾ, ਟੱਕਰ, ਝੜਪ, ਟਕਰਾ, ਟਾਕਰਾ, ਸਾਮ੍ਹਣਾ
  •   एन्काउन्टर = मुठभेड़, सामना, भिड़ंत, मुक़ाबला

In our lives, we all encounter stress and difficulties which we must overcome.

Travelling allows you to encounter new ideas, and new ways of living.


  •   ਏਨਡੇਂਜਰ = ਜੋਖਿਮ, ਖਤਰੇ ਚ ਪਾਣਾ
  •   एन्डेन्जेर = जोखिम, खतरे में डालना, विपत्ती में डालना

Your reckless driving endangered the lives of everyone in the car.

Raising taxes at this time could endanger this slow recovery of the economy.


  •   ਏਂਡੇਵਰ = ਜਤਨ, ਉਪਰਾਲਾ, ਕੋਸ਼ਿਸ਼
  •   इन्डेवर = प्रयत्न, प्रयास

Science is the endeavour to increase the body of knowledge.

This is a fantastic and noble endeavour.


  •   ਏਨਡੋ = ਦਾਨ ਦੇਣਾ, ਭੇਂਟ ਦੇਣਾ
  •   एन्डाउ = दान देना, प्रदान करना

Ducks are no less richly endowed with their own ancestral memory.

New Zealand is generously endowed with wonderful golf courses.

The Wellcome Trust is an independent, privately endowed charity.


  •   ਏਂਗਰੋਸ = ਰੁਝਾਉ, ਰੁਝਾਉਣਾ
  •   इन्ग्रोस = ध्यान खींचना, मोटे अक्षरों में लिखना

Each house employed a clerk to keep minutes and to engross copies of the laws.

It may engross a vast, unknown, and perhaps unknowable area.

But such sports should not engross all our time to the exclusion of useful employment.


  •   ਏਨਲਾਇਟਨਮੇਂਟ = ਮੁਕਤੀ, ਪ੍ਰਕਾਸ਼, ਚਾਨਣ
  •   एनलाइटनमेंट = जानकारी, ज्ञानोदय, शिक्षा

Go on to tell the story of how the Buddha reached enlightenment.

Such "modernism" was an aspect or fruit of what historians call the European enlightenment.

Enlightenment and more serious habits of moral reflection ought indeed to be encouraged.


  •   ਏਨਾਰ੍ਮਸ = ਮਹਾਨ, ਵਿਰਾਟ, ਵਿਸ਼ਾਲ
  •   इनॉर्मस = बृहत्, बहुत अधिक, विशाल

The visit by the President resulted in an enormous traffic jam.

She lives in an enormous house, with 8 bedrooms, 5 bathrooms and an indoor swimming pool.


  •   ਏਂਟਾਇਯਰ = ਸਾਰਾ, ਸਮੁੱਚੇ, ਸਮੁੱਚਾ
  •   एन्टाइअर = पूर्ण, तमाम, संपूर्ण

He was so tired that he slept through the entire movie.

It seemed like the entire world was watching the television on the day Neil Armstrong landed on the moon.

Most kinds of snakes can go an entire year without eating anything.


  •   ਏਨ੍ਵਾਇਰਨ੍ਮੇਂਟ = ਵਾਤਾਵਰਨ, ਵਾਤਾਵਰਣ, ਪਰਿਸਥਿਤੀ, ਆਸ-ਪਾਸ
  •   एन्वाइरन्मेंट = पर्यावरण, वातावरण

This city is generally a safe and friendly environment for foreign students to study in.

This city is generally a safe and friendly environment for foreign students to study in.

Different learning environments are beneficial to students with different learning styles.


  •   ਏਕ੍ਵਿਪ = ਲੈਸ ਹੋਣਾ, ਸਮਰ੍ਤ ਬਣਾਨਾ
  •   इक्विप = लैस होना, सज्जित करना

Global financial markets have few incentives to equip poor countries to be globally productive.

Their elders have always told them that education is the best way to equip them to thrive in a globalised world.


  •   ਏਕ੍ਵਿਪ੍ਡ = ਲੈਸ, ਸੁਸਜਿਤ
  •   एक्विप्ड = सुसज्जित, साज-सामान सहित

Equipped with the most modern appliances, cooking and cleaning was quick and easy.

The living room was equipped with a massive flat screen television and worn furniture.


  •   ਇਕ੍ਵਿਵਲੇਂਟ = ਸਮਾਨ, ਬਰਾਬਰ
  •   इक्विवलेंट = समान, बराबर, अनुरूप

You can pay by cash, check, bank draft or money order, in British funds or equivalent.

One glass of beer is equivalent to a glass of wine, in terms of alcohol content.

Women will not be satisfied until their wages are equivalent to those of men doing the same kind of work.


  •   ਏਸੇਨ੍ਸ਼੍ਹਿਯਲ = ਜਰੂਰੀ, ਅਹਿਮ, ਜ਼ਰੂਰੀ, ਲਾਜ਼ਮੀ, ਆਵੱਸ਼ਕ
  •   एसेन्षियल = महत्वपूर्ण, अनिवार्य, आवश्यक, अत्यावश्यक

It is essential that you increase your vocabulary if you want to improve your English.

It is essential that you attend next week's management meeting.


  •   ਏਸ੍ਟੈਬ੍ਲਿਸ਼੍ਡ = ਸਥਾਪਿਤ, ਕਾਇਮ
  •   एस्टॅब्लिश्ड = प्रतिष्ठित, स्थापित

Her grandfather established his own law firm in 1922.

Small Islamic kingdoms were established in India by the year 1200.


  •   ਏਸ੍ਟਿਮੇਟ = ਅਨੁਮਾਨ, ਹਿਸਾਬ, ਜਾਇਜਾ, ਅੰਦਾਜ਼ਾ
  •   एस्टिमेट = अंदाज़, अनुमान

His estimate for the renovations to our house was $2,250.

You should have an estimate done before proceeding with repairs.


  •   ਏਫੇਮੀਸਤ = ਮੰਗਲਭਾਸ਼ੀ
  •   एउफेमिस्ट = मंगलभाषी, कठोर शब्दों के स्थान पर मधुर शब्द

Real worry here centers on what are euphemistically referred to as seismic events.

Prisons should not be euphemistically named, and they should not bedesigned as comfortable, attractive rehabilitation centers.


  •   ਇਵੈਲ੍ਯੂਯੇਟ = ਆਂਕਾਣਾ, ਮੁਲਯਾਂਕਣ, ਅੰਦਾਜ਼ਾ ਲਗਾਨਾ
  •   इवैल्यूएट = आंकना, मूल्यांकन, अंदाज़ लगाना

It will take us a few days to fully evaluate your proficiency in English.

We are currently doing a study to evaluate the effects of the drug on patients with high blood pressure.


  •   ਏਵਿਡੇਨ੍ਸ = ਬਿਆਨ, ਸਬੂਤ, ਪ੍ਰਮਾਣ, ਗਵਾਹੀ
  •   एविडेन्स = गवाह, प्रमाण, सबूत , साक्षी

Do you have any evidence to back up your accusations?

He doesn't have enough evidence to support his theories just yet.


  •   ਏਵੋਲ੍ਯੂਸ਼ਨ = ਵਿਕਾਸ, ਕ੍ਰਮ-ਵਿਕਾਸ
  •   एवोल्यूशन = विकास, खुलाव, फैलाव

She doesn't believe in evolution; she thinks we are all descended from Adam and Eve.

The evolution of the thumb allowed human beings to become tool-makers.


  •   ਏਕ੍ਸੀਡਿਂਗ੍ਲੀ = ਨਿਹਾਇਤ, ਅਤਯਅੰਤ, ਬਹੁਤ
  •   इक्सीडिंगली = बहुत सा, अत्यन्त, अति

The winter is short, but exceedingly cold.

He was exceedingly fond of horses and hunting.


  •   ਏਗ੍ਜ਼ਿਸ੍ਟੇਨ੍ਸ = ਮੌਜੂਦਗੀ, ਹੋਂਦ, ਹਸਤੀ, ਵਜੂਦ, ਅਸਤਿਤਵ
  •   एग्ज़िस्टेन्स = अस्तित्व, मौजूदगी, संभव, ज़िन्दगी

Researchers recently discovered the existence of a previously unknown sonata by Beethoven.

The existence of a dinosaur fossil with feathers has cast doubt on the theory that birds are descended from dinosaurs.


  •   ਏਕ੍ਸਪੇਡੀਸ਼ਨ = ਮੁਹਿੰਮ, ਅਭਿਯਾਨ
  •   एक्स्पिडिशन = अभियान

The Chinese used lions on hunting expeditions during the reign of Kublai Khan.

Jackie and Tim went on a photographic expedition to Kenya last year.


  •   ਏਕ੍ਸ੍ਪੇਂਡ = ਖ਼ਰਚ, ਖ਼ਰਚਣਾ
  •   इक्स्पेन्ड = खर्च करना, व्यय करना, लगाना

A deer will not expend energy for no purpose.

The Karens and Shans who settle in the plains expend much more care in ploughing and weeding their crops.

Expend as little energy as possible in doing so.


  •   ਏਕ੍ਸਪੇਨ੍ਸਿਵ = ਮਹਿੰਗਾ, ਕੀਮਤੀ, ਖਰਚੀਲਾ
  •   इक्स्पेन्सिव = क़ीमती, बहुमूल्य, महंगा

The world's most expensive food is saffron, which sells for as much as $2,000 per ounce!

There's a lot of expensive stereo equipment in here, so we'd better lock the door.


  •   ਏਕ੍ਸਪ੍ਲੋਰ = ਖੋਜਣਾ, ਪਤਾ ਲਗਾਨਾ
  •   एक्सप्लोर = खोजना, जांचना, ढूंढ़ना, पता लगाना

Antarctica was the last continent to be explored by mankind.

We explored the old town on foot for the first couple of days after arriving in the city.


  •   ਏਕ੍ਸਟੇਂਟ = ਖੇਤਰ, ਸੀਮਾ, ਹੱਦ, ਦਾਇਰਾ
  •   एक्सटेंट = विस्तार, सीमा, हद

Many people are totally ignorant of the extent of poverty in this country.

Our thoughts and behaviors are shaped to a certain extent by the culture in which we live.


  •   ਏਕ੍ਸਟਿਂਕ੍ਟ = ਦੁਰਲਭ, ਲੁਪਤ, ਸਮਾਪਤ
  •   एक्सटिंक्ट = लुप्त, समाप्त, दुर्लभ, नष्ट

Dinosaurs have been extinct for millions of years.

Mount Fuji is an extinct volcano.


  •   ਏਕ੍ਸਟ੍ਰੈਕ੍ਸ਼੍ਹਨ = ਸਾਰ, ਨਿਚੋਡ਼, ਨਿਸ਼ਕਰਸ਼
  •   इक्स्ट्रैक्शन = निचोड़, निष्कर्ष, सार

In the old days of dentistry, tooth extractions were done without the benefit of proper painkilling medication.

Kazakhstan's industrial sector rests on the extraction and processing of its abundant natural resources.


  •   ਏਕ੍ਸਟ੍ਰਾਰ੍ਡਿਨਰੀ = ਅਜੀਬ, ਵਿਲੱਖਣ, ਨਿਰਾਲਾ, ਅਨੂਠਾ, ਅਣੋਖਾ
  •   एक्स्ट्रऑर्डनेरी = अद्भुत, असाधारण, असामान्य

Johnny has made extraordinary progress in reading this past year.

Only 7 years old, the young girl is already an extraordinarily gifted pianist.


  •   ਏਕ੍ਸਟ੍ਰੀਮ = ਹੱਦ, ਅੱਤ
  •   एक्सट्रीम = सिरा, चरमसीमा, अधिकतम

Cactus plants are uniquely adapted to the extreme temperatures of the desert.

Very few animals can survive the extreme cold of the Arctic.


  •   ਫੈਬ੍ਯੁਲਸ = ਪਰ੍ਸਿਧ, ਸ਼ਾਨਦਾਰ
  •   फैब्युलस = शानदार, उम्दा, भव्य

The movie was absolutely fabulous; gorgeous scenery, a wonderful story, and beautiful music.

Going to Mexico for our holidays was a fabulous idea; we all had a great time.

The children have done a fabulous job of cleaning up the playroom.


  •   ਫਸਿਆਲ = ਸ਼ਕਲ
  •   फेशियल = मुँह का सौन्दर्य उपचार, चेहरे का, मुख का

The facial expressions of those sitting around the table were sympathetic.

She couldn't see his facial expression in the dark, so it was hard to tell if he was teasing her or not.


  •   ਫੇਸਿਲਿਟੇਟ = ਸਰਲ ਬਣਾਨਾ, ਆਸਾਨ
  •   फेसिलिटेट = सुगम करना, सरल बनाना, आसान

The government is looking for ways to facilitate foreign investment in our country.

The government believes that reducing regulations will facilitate economic development in the region.

A healthy diet and regular exercise will facilitate loss of those unwanted pounds.

Fall Apart

  •   ਫਾਲ ਅਪਾਰ੍ਟ = ਟੁੱਟ, ਟੁੱਟਣਾ, ਟੁਕਡੇ ਟੁਕਡੇ ਹੋਣਾ
  •   फॉल अपार्ट = टुकड़े टुकड़े होना

As the disease progresses, the cracks become bigger and eventually begins to fall apart.

I guess it was like that for you when your company started to fall apart.


  •   ਫੈਂਟੈਸ੍ਟਿਕ = ਅਜੀਬ, ਸ਼ਾਨਦਾਰ, ਬਹੁਤ ਅਛਾ
  •   फैन्टैस्टिक = शानदार, बहुत अच्छा

They had a fantastic time in Greece on their holidays.

The movie was fantastic; the special effects were unbelievable and the story was great.


  •   ਫੈਸੈਨੇਸ਼ਨ = ਖਿੱਚ, ਆਕਰਸ਼ਨ
  •   फ़ैसीनेशन = संमोहन, मोह, आकर्षण

The little girl's eyes grew bigger and bigger as she stared at the toy robot with fascination.

Tim's boyhood fascination with the stars eventually led him to a career as an astronomer.


  •   ਫਾਸ੍ਟਨਰ = ਜਕੜ, ਜਕੜਨਾ
  •   फास्टेनेर = कसनी, बंधन

The strap of my watch has Velcro fasteners.

The coat has Velcro fasteners which are easy for small children to use.


  •   ਫਿਜ਼ਿਬਿਲਿਟੀ = ਹੋਣਹਾਰੀ
  •   फीज़बिलटी = व्यवहार्यता, होनहारी

The government is currently assessing the feasibility of turning over certain services to the public sector.

In 1969, the American navy spent $375,000 to test the feasibility of using a frisbee as a weapon of war.


  •   ਫਰੋਸ਼ਿਯਸ = ਕਰੂਰ, ਜੰਗਲੀ, ਕਠੋਰ, ਨਿਰਦਯੀ, ਭਯੰਕਰ
  •   फरोशियस = उग्र, क्रूर, निर्दयी

Ferocious predators attack other ants rather than people.

The Texans had a good excuse for shooting him, as he conducted war in a ferocious way.


  •   ਫੇਚ = ਲਿਆਉਣਾ, ਵਸੂਲ ਕਰਨਾ
  •   फेच = चालाकी, छल, कपट

Jack and Jill went up the hill to fetch a pail of water.

We are teaching our dog how to fetch a stick.


  •   ਫਿਨ੍ਸ, ਫਿੰਸ = ਪੰਜ. ਪੰਖ, ਮਛਲੀ ਦੇ ਪੰਖ
  •   फिन्स = पंख, मछली का पर

There are no traces either of paired fins or of dermal armour.

The pelvic fins are abdominal in position, long and pointed in shape.


  •   ਫਿਯੋਰ੍ਡ = a long narrow inlet of the sea between steep cliffs; common in Norway

It lies on the south side of the Bukken Fjord, and has a picturesque harbour well sheltered by islands.

Limits advance almost to the Arctic coast at Varanger Fjord

Scoresby Fjord has a length of about 180 m.


  •   ਫ੍ਲਾ = ਗੜਬੜ, ਨੁਕਸ, ਖੋਟ
  •   फ्लॉ = त्रुटि, दरार, दोष, नुक्स, कलंक, खोट

I will point out the methodological flaws in the project.

John Prescott's decision contained a number of fundamental flaws.


  •   ਫ੍ਲੇਕ੍ਸਿਬਲ = ਕੋਮਲ, ਨਰਮ, ਲਚਕੀਲਾ
  •   फ्लेक्सिबल = लचकदार, स्थिति के अनुरूप ढालना

If your travel plans are flexible, you can get a last-minute flight at a very low rate.

Teachers have to be very flexible when working with students who have varying needs.


  •   ਫੋਰਮਲ = ਊਪਚਾਰਿਕ, ਦਿਖਾਊ, ਨਿਯਮਾਨੂਸਾਰ
  •   फॉर्मल = औपचारिक, दिखाऊ

The students had a formal dinner at the end of the program to celebrate their graduation.

She was an excellent musician despite the fact that she had no formal training.


  •   ਫਾਰ੍ਮੁਲੇਸ਼ਨ = ਨਿਰੂਪਣ
  •   फॉर्मुलेशन = निरूपण

The formulation of this definition of chemistry was due to Robert Boyle.

Ilis theory was not a mere formulation of the Prussian state.


  •   ਫ੍ਰੈਗ੍ਮੇਂਟ = ਟੁਕੜਾ, ਭੋਰਾ, ਫਾੜੀ
  •   फ्रैग्मेंट = टुकडा, पुरजा, अंश

He broke his leg, and a fragment of bone was sticking out.

Sand consists primarily of fragments of rocks.


  •   ਫ੍ਰੇਮ੍ਵਰ੍ਕ = ਢਾਂਚਾ, ਬਨਾਵਟ, ਰੂਪਰੇਖਾ
  •   फ्रेम्वर्क = ढांचा, रूपरेखा, संरचना

The policy framework will provide guidance on when and where bike lanes will be installed.

We need to draw up a framework for payment of our debts before they become too big.


  •   ਫ੍ਰਾਟ = ਭਰਪੂਰ, ਭਰਿਯਾ ਹੋਇਆ
  •   फ्रॉट = भरपूर, भरा हुआ

Romantic relationships with humans were fraught with difficulties.

Over the following years, the situation in the south grew increasingly fraught.


  •   ਫ੍ਰਾਇਟਨ = ਡਰਾਉਣਾ, ਦਬਕਾਉਣਾ, ਦਬਾਉਣਾ, ਧਮਕਾਉਣਾ
  •   फ्राइटन = डराना, भयभीत करना

The camp monitor tried to frighten the kids by telling them scary ghost stories.

An Italian proverb notes that it is easy to frighten the bull from the window.


  •   ਫਂਜਾਇ = ਫੰਗਲ
  •   फन्जाइ = कुकुरमुत्ता, फफुंद

In determining fungi no single character must be relied upon as conclusive, but all the characters must be taken together.

Red spots may indicate the presence of Fungi.


  •   ਫ੍ਯੂਰਿਯਸ = ਗੁੱਸੇ, ਜੋਰਦਾਰ, ਕਰੋਧਵਾਨ, ਲਾਲ-ਪੀਲਾ, ਕ੍ਰੋਧਗ੍ਰਸਤ
  •   फ्युरीअस = प्रचंड, आगबबूला, आपे के बाहर, जल्दबाज

The furious pace of technological change can be very overwhelming for people at times.

The Americans took control of the island after a furious battle with the enemy soldiers.


  •   ਫਰੋਸ = ਲਕੀਰ, ਲੀਕ
  •   फरोस = झुर्री, शिकन, शिकन डालना, लीक

The furrows disappeared and he chuckled as he moved away from the door jam.

The furrows between his eyes deepened as his brows drew down further.


  •   ਜੇਸ੍ਚਰ = ਸੰਕੇਤ, ਇਸ਼ਾਰਾ
  •   जेस्चर = हाव-भाव, भाव प्रदर्शन, संकेत

He made a rude gesture, and walked away.

The child couldn't talk, and had to communicate using gestures and sounds.


  •   ਗ੍ਲੋਰੀਯਸ = ਸ਼ਾਨਦਾਰ, ਮਹਾਨ
  •   ग्लोरीअस = आनंदमय, तेजस्वी, महान, शानदार

It was a glorious spring morning, with the sun shining, and birds singing.

The band had a glorious career, and was the best in the business for over 10 years.


  •   ਗ੍ਰੈਜੁਯਲੀ = ਸਹਿਜੇ, ਆਹਿਸਤਾ, ਧੀਰੇ
  •   ग्रैजूअली = धीरे-धीरे, क्रमश:, क्रम से

The young boy left his bicycle out in the rain for weeks, so it gradually began to rust.

We gradually got used to living in a new city.


  •   ਗ੍ਰੈਵਿਟੀ = ਗੰਭੀਰਤਾ, ਗੁਰੂਤਤਵ, ਭਾਰੀਪਨ
  •   ग्रैविटी = गुरुत्वाकर्षण, भारीपन, आकर्षण शक्ति

Our sun, like all stars, is held together by its own gravity.

The moon's gravity is only one sixth that of the Earth.

Over time gravity can kill a star by crushing it in on itself.


  •   ਹੈਬਿਟੈਟ = ਨਿਵਾਸ, ਰਿਹਾਇਸ਼, ਠਿਕਾਣਾ
  •   हैबिटैट = वास, स्थान, निवासस्थान, आवास

The wetlands here are a rich habitat for various kinds of birds.

The natural habitat of the lion is the savannah.


  •   ਹਾਲ੍ਤ = ਮੁਕਾਮ, ਮੰਜ਼ਲ
  •   हॉल्ट = ठहराव, पड़ाव, रुकाव

The officer shouted "Halt!" to the soldiers.

The soldiers came to a halt at the crossroads.


  •   ਹਾਰ੍ਡਵਾਇਯਰ੍ਡ = ਭਾਰੀ ਸਮਗ੍ਰੀ
  •   हार्डवाइयर्ड = यंत्रस्थ

Frequently these systems are not hard-wired but controlled using wireless technology.

The problem is that our lives have become hard-wired to the oil economy.


  •   ਹਾਰ੍ਵੇਸ੍ਟ = ਫਸਲ, ਪੈਦਾਵਾਰ, ਵਾਢੀ
  •   हार्वेस्ट = फ़सल, कृषि फल, पैदावार

The time of harvest is traditionally a time of celebration in farming regions all over the world.

A Chinese proverb states, "The harvest of a whole year depends on what you sow in the springtime."


  •   ਹਿਬਰਨੇਟ = ਸ਼ੀਤਨੀਂਦ੍ਰਾ
  •   हाइबर्नैट = शीतस्वाप, सुस्ती में जाड़ा बिताना

Frogs also hibernate from october for around 3-5 months.

Unlike their cousins they do not hibernate due to the all round high temperatures of their native land.


  •   ਹਾਇਯਰਾਰ੍ਕੀ = ਅਨੁਕ੍ਰਮ, ਵਰਗੀਕਰ੍ਣ
  •   हाइअरार्की = वर्गीकरण, अनुक्रम

There was a hierarchy of headings, meaning headings of different sizes or weights.

The same remarks apply to a society that is caste-based, or has any other rigid hierarchy to social status.

High Sea

  •   ਹਾਇ ਸੀ = ਮਹਾਸਾਗਰ, ਉਚ ਸਮੁੱਦ੍ਰ
  •   हाइ सी = महासागर, उच समुद्र

At high sea level, limestone was deposited and beaches and dunes were created.

High sea salt levels signal increased storminess and stronger winds.


  •   ਹਿਸ੍ਟੋਰਿਯਨ = ਇਤਿਹਾਸਕਾਰ, ਇਤਿਹਾਸ ਲੇਖਕ
  •   हिस्टोरीअन = इतिहास लेखक, इतिहासकार

Abbad makes extensive quotations from early historians of Spanish America.

They were men of great culture, and many historians, poets and writers belong to this class.


  •   ਹਿਸ੍ਟਾਰਿਕਲ = ਇਤਿਹਾਸਿਕ, ਇਤਿਹਾਸੀ
  •   हिस्टॉरिकल = ऐतिहासिक

"I'm only interested in the historical implications," he said.

Even Fred O'Connor was taking the day off from his historical research to watch the festivities.


  •   ਹਾਉਸਹੋਲ੍ਡ = ਘਰ, ਘਰਾਣਾ, ਕਬੀਲਾ, ਟੱਬਰ
  •   हाउस्होल्ड = घर बार, गृहस्थी, पारिवारिक इकाई

The household gradually settled down to near normal.

The balance of the afternoon was spent on household chores and packing away the last remnants of the holiday.


  •   ਹਡ੍ਡ੍ਲ = ਭੀਡ ਭਾਡ਼, ਝੁੰਡ, ਜ੍ਮਘਟ
  •   हडल = भीड़-भाड़, झुंड

The winter storm made her want to huddle under the covers.

Huddle of mean houses in mean streets, diversified with splendid mosques.


  •   ਹਲ = ਛਿੱਲ, ਬਕਲ, ਛਿਲਕਾ
  •   हल = जहाज का ढाँचा, छिलका, बक्कल

The vessel is strongly built of steel with an ice-strengthened hull, perfect for the polar seas.

The computer-designed, solid Fiberglass hull is the result of extensive testing and special engineering.


  •   ਹ੍ਯ੍ਪੋਥੇਸਿਸ = ਅੰਦਾਜਾ, ਕਲਪਨਾ
  •   हाइपाथिसिस = अटकल, अनुमान, कल्पना

Their hypothesis was proven to be true in a number of experiments.

A number of different hypotheses have been put forward to explain the rise in global temperatures.

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